What is a shale stabilizer?
What is a shale stabilizer?
KLA-GARD shale stabilizer and inhibitor system reduces the swelling of sensitive shales and drill cuttings exposed to water-based drilling fluids. It inhibits shale hydration, reduces the effect of drill solids on viscosity, and works to minimize problems such as. excessive dilution rates. increased torque and drag.
What is inhibited mud?
A mud that slows or stops hydration, swelling and disintegration of shales.
What causes shale swelling?
Shale swelling is caused by clay (one of the major components of shale) absorbing water, usually from drilling fluid. The proper drilling fluid additives can mitigate shale swelling and prevent the loss of the entire drilling operation.
What is shale dispersion?
Shale dispersion is a process by which shale cuttings disintegrate into smaller sizes. It is a function of mechanical factors such as shear and chemical factors such as hydration (Guizhong et al.
What is inhibition in drilling fluids?
1. n. [Drilling Fluids] Prevention, arrest or slowing down of any action. For example, one can inhibit a corrosion process by coating drillpipe with amine films to arrest pipe corrosion in air.
What is reactive shale?
Each clay mineral when present in abundance significantly changes the shale properties. For instance, mixed layer illite–smectite-rich shale is reactive with water and smectite causes swelling of shale when in contact with water. Shale swelling is a primary cause of wellbore instability.
What is drill in fluid?
A drill-in fluid (DIF) is a clean fluid that is designed to cause little or no loss of the natural permeability of the pay zone, and to provide superior hole cleaning and easy cleanup. DIFs can be: Water-based. Brine-based.
How do you reduce swelling in shale?
1. Polyacrylamides (anionic and cationic) prevent swelling in all the three shale formations studied by forming an isolation membrane on the shale and preventing the water and ions from entering the shale. 2. Using high concentrations of TMAC is not recommended.
Does shale contain water?
In shale rocks that are rich in organic matter, the water occurs solely in inorganic pores. Gas contained in organic pores is free of water as kerogen is hydrophobic, i.e. it repels water particles. As a result, a low rock water saturation coefficient correlates with a high content of organic matter in the rock.
What shale means?
variant spelling of shekel 1a : any of various ancient units of weight especially : a Hebrew unit equal to about 252 grains troy. b : a unit of value based on a shekel weight of gold or silver. 2 : a coin weighing one shekel.
What is shale made of?
Shale is composed mainly of clay-size mineral grains, which are usually clay minerals such as illite, kaolinite, and smectite. Shale usually contains other clay-size mineral particles such as quartz, chert, and feldspar.
What is invert emulsion mud?
Invert emulsion oil-based mud (IEOBM) is one of the most important oil-based fluids used in offshore and onshore drilling operations especially in deep drilling operations. Invert emulsion mud is essential mud at which the diesel oil is the external phase and the water is the internal phase.
What is gumbo in drilling?
1. n. [Drilling] A generic term for soft, sticky, swelling clay formations that are frequently encountered in surface holes offshore or in sedimentary basins onshore near seas. This clay fouls drilling tools and plugs piping, both severe problems for drilling crews.
What is shale used for?
Black and gray shale are common, but the rock can occur in any color. Shale is commercially important. It is used to make brick, pottery, tile, and Portland cement. Natural gas and petroleum may be extracted from oil shale.
What are the different types of shale?
They are formed from silts and clays that have been deposited and compacted or hardened into rocks. On the basis of texture therefore, the most common types of shales are silty shale (silt dominant) and clay shale (clay dominant). These two types of shales are also called argillaceous shales.
What is a Spudder rig?
A Spudder is a cable tool rig made for drilling shallow wells. Today, spudding a well refers to starting the hole in the ground so that a rotary drill can be placed to bore the well to depth. Prior to the invention of the rotary drill, there was only the cable tool rig.
Why is it called spudding a well?
The bit used to drive that guide pipe was a blunt-ended drilling device called a spud bit. Because of that process, those drilling machines came to be called “spudders” and from it developed the term “spudding,” or “spudding in,” to identify the beginning process of drilling an oil well.
What is invert emulsion?
An invert emulsion or “backwards” emulsion refers to an emulsion in which oil is the continuous or external phase and water is the dispersed or internal phase so that, in a given period of time after mixing oil and water phases with the help of an emulsifier, the emulsion may break down and may return gradually to the …
What is in invert fluid?
Invert drilling fluids are water-in-oil emulsions containing a hydrocarbon-continuous phase with an emulsified internal aqueous “brine” phase in addition to clays, weighting agents, and other additives (Darley and Gray 1988).
What is gumbo in oil and gas?
1. n. [Drilling] A generic term for soft, sticky, swelling clay formations that are frequently encountered in surface holes offshore or in sedimentary basins onshore near seas. This clay fouls drilling tools and plugs piping, both severe problems for drilling crews. See: native clay.
What is gumbo mud?
Gumbo soil is a mixture which often has some small amounts of sand and/or organic material, but is typically defined by the overwhelming presence of very fine particles of clay.
What is another name for shale?
What is another word for shale?
What does spud mean oilfield?
Spudding is the process of beginning to drill a well in the oil and gas industry. A larger drill bit is initially used to clear a surface hole, which is then lined with casing and cement to protect groundwater.
What are the products of shale inhibitors?
The products range from hydration inhibitors to multifunctional polymers which give additional viscosity and carrying capacity. Alternatively where such viscosity is not desired i.e., in high solids non-dispersed muds or in mud pre-mix concentrates, this effect is minimized but shale inhibition is maintained.
Why choose global oilfield solutions for shale inhibitors?
Depending on specific needs, Global Oilfield Solutions has developed a range of shale inhibitors with differing degrees of molecular weight, ionicity, and product forms to cater to different conditions and fluid systems. The products range from hydration inhibitors to multifunctional polymers which give additional viscosity and carrying capacity.
Do shale drilling and completion fluids react to shale inhibitor additives?
Understanding the behavior and responses of shale to shale inhibitor additives of drilling and completion fluids has been a challenge for many years because of the numerous and complex chemical and physical variations present in these type of formations.
Can the integration of geological aspects improve clay inhibition in shale?
This paper presents the results of laboratory experiments that show how the integration of the geological aspects can help to understand the different responses of the shale to fluids and improve the selection of chemical additives for clay inhibition.