How long has the erosion problem at Stockton been an issue?

How long has the erosion problem at Stockton been an issue?

60 years
Stockton, on the north side of Newcastle Harbour, is one of the largest beaches in NSW but surprisingly has a serious coastal erosion problem. This problem has been an ongoing and unresolved issue for more than 60 years. But Stockton did not always have a beach erosion problem.

What causes erosion on the Gold Coast?

High winds, powerful king tides and severe weather events – storms and cyclones – have all contributed to the erosion of beaches in the past and will continue to do so in the future. Erosion at Palm Beach following a cyclone that hit the Gold Coast in 1954.

When did erosion start on the Gold Coast?

Gold Coast City Council. Coastal Processes and Research. The process of erosion and accretion was first noted after the 1967 erosion events. In 1967 large volumes of sand were eroded from the upper part of the beach to a depth of about six metres, forming a storm bar.

What is the biggest cause of erosion at the beach?

Beach erosion is usually caused by ocean currents and waves. The energy of the moving water pulls sand away from the shore. High winds speed up erosion. It is very common to see severe erosion after a hurricane or a strong storm.

Why is Stockton Beach eroding?

The Newcastle Harbour break waters and navigational channel effectively block new sand moving from Nobbys Beach to Stockton. With no sand coming in, and the waves moving sand north, it means that Stockton Beach suffers erosion.

How has Stockton Beach changed over time?

Further sand build-up created a wider beach. Continued sand build-up has widened the beach front. Multiple erosion events saw the SLSC Seawall constructed and covered by dune sand to replace the failed sand bag wall. Stockton continues to experience significant ongoing sand loss.

How does beach erosion happen?

Coastal erosion occurs when the waves that lap at the coast slowly wear away at the shoreline. As these waves wash over the shore, they carry sand and sediment with them and redistribute it to the ocean floor or to other areas. Erosion can be worsened by factors such as high winds, wave currents, and tidal currents.

How does beach erosion affect the environment?

For ecosystems, erosion translates into habitat loss as coastal wetlands deteriorate. The plants and wildlife that depend on these ecosystems are negatively impacted by the effects of erosion. Economically, loss of these ecosystems leaves coastal areas more vulnerable to damages from tropical storms and storm surges.

How can Gold Coast beaches prevent erosion?

Seawalls. Seawalls are constructed along our coastline to protect coastal infrastructure from erosion. On the Gold Coast they are made of large boulders buried under the sand. They remain buried during periods of calm weather but can be exposed during storms.

Are Gold Coast beaches at risk?

The Gold Coast will lose its beaches and a large chunk of Australia’s $42 billion tourism industry is in danger, according to a new climate change report. In the worst case scenario for sea level rises and more frequent catastrophic floods, the Coast is singled out for its exposure to disaster emergencies.

What does beach erosion affect?

Thanks to a number of factors like sea-level rise, flooding, and strong wave activity, the sand, rock, and soil of our coastlines are eroded. The risks of coastal erosion include property damage, the degradation of plant and animal habitats, and the loss of land.

How do humans impact sand dunes?

Excavating, building roads, houses and walkways on coastal dunes or beaches also causes sand dune erosion by disrupting natural sediment processes.

What is causing the erosion at Stockton Beach?

How did the Stockton Sand Dunes form?

100 million years ago sea levels where over 200 meters higher and the swash zone of the Stockton Sand Dunes where as far inland as Tomago, making the current location of the tertiary vegetation zone under water. As the sea levels reduced, new dunes were created by the depositing and layering of new sand.

What are the effects of beach erosion?

Effects are likely to include coastal erosion, wetland and coastal plain flooding, salinization of aquifers and soils, and a loss of habitats for fish, birds, and other wildlife and plants (Meehl et al. 2007).

How does beach erosion affect wildlife?

As the ocean starts eroding the introduced sand, the water offshore can become muddy, potentially smothering marine life and changing coastal water quality. Critters that rely on relatively clean, clear water, like clams, can die off in large numbers.

How can we prevent beach erosion?

Present beach erosion prevention methods include sand dunes, vegetation, seawalls, sandbags, and sand fences.

Why is beach erosion a problem?

Ultimately, a beach erodes because the supply of sand to the beach can not keep up with the loss of sand to the sea. Most sand is transported from inland via rivers and streams. The damming of most waterways in the US has thus prevented a major supply of sand from getting to our beaches.

Is Australia going to sink?

Recent measurements using the Global Positioning System (GPS) suggest that the Australian continent is sinking, but current understanding of geophysical processes suggests that the expected vertical motion of the plate should be close to zero or uplifting.

Is the Gold Coast sinking?

If the report’s predictions are correct, large parts of the Gold Coast, including Sea World, will be under water in 80 years. The ocean would surround Brisbane Airport. Griffith University researcher Aysin Dedekorkut-Howes said rising sea levels would trigger a major crisis along Australia’s coast.

How big a problem is beach erosion?

Already, coastal erosion costs roughly $500 million per year for coastal property loss, including damage to structures and loss of land. Coastal erosion is the process by which local sea level rise, strong wave action, and coastal flooding wear down or carry away rocks, soils, and/or sands along the coast.

How does beach erosion change the earth?

Coastal erosion—the wearing away of rocks, earth, or sand on the beach—can change the shape of entire coastlines. During the process of coastal erosion, waves pound rocks into pebbles and pebbles into sand. Waves and currents sometimes transport sand away from beaches, moving the coastline farther inland.

What causes sand dune erosion?

Consider wind and water: Wind and water are the primary natural forces that erode sand dunes. Make sure not to take any actions that may disrupt these natural processes or make them more severe. For example, a cement driveway can’t absorb rainwater like the soil it replaced.

Why is sand dune erosion bad?

Long-term erosion If too much of that sand is lost seaward and there is not enough new sand coming into the system, the beach will not be restored to its original state and the coastline will retreat landward, and eventually coastal property may be threatened.

What causes erosion at Stockton Beach?

Is Nobbys Beach an artificial beach?

MORE ON STOCKTON: Read The Stockton File It is sometimes overlooked that Nobbys, because of the breakwall, is an entirely artificial beach. The natural coast has had countless aeons to reach a general stability, but Nobbys Beach is still, in geological terms, in its formative stages.

Although erosion is a natural process and does not completely remove a beach, scientists are concerned about beach erosion because human activities have altered the way erosion occurs. Coastlines are attractive places and many people want to live or visit there. Many beaches are now completely lined by buildings, parking lots, and roads.

Is sand at Nobbys to blame for the Stockton erosion crisis?

Although it does not go into a huge amount of detail, a new report to Newcastle City Council on the erosion crisis at Stockton does confirm the accumulation of sand at Nobbys as a major factor in the Stockton “sediment budget”.

When did Nobbys Island become part of the mainland?

Once an island, once much higher than it is now, Nobbys was joined to the mainland in the 1840s, when a breakwall begun in 1818 under Governor Lachlan Macquarie was finally completed.