What are the early signs of theophylline toxicity?

What are the early signs of theophylline toxicity?

What happens to patients with theophylline intoxication? Signs of mild theophylline toxicity are nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, tachycardia, and muscle tremor and are usually seen with levels around 20 to 25 mg/L.

What drug causes theophylline toxicity?

Causes of chronic theophylline toxicity include the following: Drug interactions (eg, ethanol [ETOH], cimetidine, oral contraceptives, allopurinol, macrolide antibiotics, quinolone antibiotics)

What is the most common symptom of theophylline toxicity?

Neurological signs include tremors (most common), restlessness, agitation, and altered mental status. Persistent seizures may occur with serum levels > 25 mcg/mL. Gastrointestinal manifestions are nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea.

Is there an antidote for theophylline?

An antidote to theophylline is not available, so treatment consists of gastrointestinal decontamination and alleviation of signs and symptoms.

How much theophylline is an overdose?

Toxic dose. An acute single dose of 8–10 mg/kg can raise the serum level by up to 15–20 mg/L, depending on the rate of absorption. Acute oral overdose of more than 50 mg/kg may potentially result in a level above 100 mg/L and severe toxicity.

Does theophylline cause hypernatremia?

Conclusions: Theophylline should be considered as a possible cause of hyponatremia.

What happens with theophylline toxicity?

Consequences of theophylline intoxication include metabolic disturbances (hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, and metabolic acidosis), nausea, vomiting, and, in severe cases, seizures, cardiac arrhythmias, and death.

How can theophylline toxicity be corrected?

Extracorporeal treatments can be used in the treatment of theophylline poisoning, with hemodialysis being the preferred method due to it being able to both enhance the clearance of the toxin and help correct metabolic derangements.

How do you reduce theophylline toxicity?

The oral administration of multiple doses of activated charcoal (which increases theophylline clearance) is recommended for nearly all patients with theophylline intoxication.

Can theophylline cause hyperkalemia?

In contrast, patients with chronic theophylline intoxication had a mean serum potassium concentration of 3.83 mmol/L, with a 32% frequency of hypokalemia. These data demonstrate that hypokalemia is common after theophylline intoxication and has a significantly higher incidence after acute overdose.

What is the treatment for theophylline intoxication?

The treatment of theophylline intoxication is reviewed. Efforts should be made to decrease the absorption of theophylline from the gastrointestinal tract by the oral administration of activated charcoal and sorbitol; stomach emptying procedures are recommended only in limited circumstances.

What is the pathophysiology of theophylline toxicity?

Therefore, Theophylline toxicity occurs when serum theophylline levels surpass the levels in the therapeutic range. This can occur by intentional overdose or unintentionally when metabolism and/or clearance of theophylline is altered due to certain physiological stressors. Epidemiology

Can You overdose on theophylline?

Theophylline overdose can occur if you accidentally take too much at one time. Overdose can also occur slowly over time if your daily doses are too high. To be sure you are using the correct dose, your blood will need to be tested often.

What should I know about theophylline before giving it to children?

kidney disease. Tell your doctor if you drink alcohol, or if you smoke or have recently quit smoking cigarettes or marijuana. Also tell your doctor if you have been sick with a high fever (102 degrees or higher) for 24 hours or longer. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Do not give theophylline to a child without medical advice.