What are the two types of endophthalmitis?

What are the two types of endophthalmitis?

The two types of endophthalmitis are endogenous (ie, metastatic) and exogenous. Endogenous endophthalmitis results from the hematogenous spread of organisms from a distant source of infection (eg, endocarditis).

What is endogenous endophthalmitis?

Endogenous endophthalmitis is a potentially blinding ocular infection resulting from hematogenous spread from a remote primary source. The condition is relatively rare but may become more common as the number of chronically debilitated patients and the use of invasive procedures increase.

Is Propionibacterium endogenous?

Propionibacterium acnes endogenous endophthalmitis presenting with bilateral scleritis and uveitis. Sir, Propionibacterium acnes is known to cause delayed-onset postoperative endophthalmitis. Endogenous endophthalmitis, however, is very rare.

What causes endogenous endophthalmitis?

Endogenous endophthalmitis results from metastatic spread of the organism from a primary site of infection in the setting of bacteremia or fungemia [40]. Most frequently, the organism reaches the eye through the posterior segment vasculature.

How can you tell the difference between Tass and endophthalmitis?

Endophthalmitis typically manifests during the first 2 postoperative weeks, usually 3 to 5 days after cataract surgery. The onset of TASS is typically 12 to 24 hours after cataract surgery, but this condition has been reported to develop as late as 160 days postoperatively.

What is the difference between Panophthalmitis and endophthalmitis?

The term endophthalmitis describes inflammation of the internal tissues of the eye. The term panophthalmitis describes inflammation of the internal tissues as well as external layers of the eye.

What bacteria causes endogenous endophthalmitis?

Endogenous Endophthalmitis Common causes of endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis include S. aureus, B. cereus, and gram-negative organisms, including Escherichia coli, Neisseria meningitidis, and Klebsiella spp. (27, 81, 107, 142).

How is endogenous endophthalmitis diagnosed?


  1. Presentation. Patient presentation ranges from asymptomatic to symptoms typical of severe uveitis, including a red, painful eye with photophobia, floaters, or reduced vision.
  2. Ocular examination.
  3. Differential diagnosis.
  4. Diagnostic tests.
  5. Vitreous fluid biopsy.
  6. Beta-glucan assay.
  7. Imaging.
  8. Bacterial.

What is Propionibacterium acnes route of infection?

SUMMARY. Propionibacterium acnes is known primarily as a skin commensal. However, it can present as an opportunistic pathogen via bacterial seeding to cause invasive infections such as implant-associated infections.

What is P. acnes infection?

Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram-positive bacterium that forms part of the normal flora of the skin, oral cavity, large intestine, the conjunctiva and the external ear canal. Although primarily recognized for its role in acne, P.

What is Irvine Gass syndrome?

Irvine–Gass syndrome (IGS), sometimes named pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME), is a cystoid macular edema that develops following uneventful cataract surgery. It was first described in 1953 by Irvine and studied using fluorescein angiography (FA) by Gass and Norton in 1966 [2,3].

What is TASS Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome?

Disease Entity Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) is an acute severe intraocular inflammation accompanied by diffuse corneal edema within 1-2 days of anterior segment surgery which is most commonly associated with cataract surgery.

What does panophthalmitis mean?

Medical Definition of panophthalmitis : inflammation involving all the tissues of the eyeball.

What is the difference between enucleation and evisceration?

Enucleation is the surgical removal of the entire eyeball leaving behind the lining of the eyelids and muscles of the eye. Evisceration removes only the contents of the eye, leaving the white part of the eye (the sclera) and the eye muscles intact.

Is endophthalmitis unilateral or bilateral?

Endogenous endophthalmitis may be unilateral to begin with and subsequently develop in the fellow eye. Bacterial or fungal infections may exhibit iris microabscess, hypopyon, varying grades of vitreous haze, discrete retinal nodules, perivascular retinal hemorrhage, arteriolar emboli or necrotic retina.

Is Propionibacterium acnes aerobic or anaerobic?

Propionibacterium acnes is a facultative anaerobic Gram-positive rod, abundant on the human skin, and mainly associated with the sebaceous glands of the shoulder and axilla (1).

Can Propionibacterium grow aerobically?

Although Propionibacterium acnes ordinarily grows as an anaerobe, this organism was commonly seen on aerobic primary cultures (directly from skin) of the forehead, axilla, deltoid area, and antecubital fossa. On subculture, strains from aerobic primary cultures showed their normal anaerobic state.

What causes P acne?

Propionibacterium acnes Infection P. acnes is a gram-positive commensal bacterium that causes acne on the skin. P. acnes releases lipase that produces fatty acids by digesting sebum, creating inflammation of the skin.

What is Berlin’s edema?

Disease. Commotio retinae refers to traumatic retinopathy secondary to direct or indirect trauma to the globe. Retinopathy may be present at areas of scleral impact (coup) and or distant sites (contrecoup) including the macula. Commotio retinae in the posterior pole is also referred to as Berlin’s edema.

What is a blue dot cataract?

Cerulean cataracts, also known as blue dot cataracts, are developmental cataracts characterized by blue and white opacifications scattered in the nucleus and cortex of the lens. Patients with cerulean cataracts are usually asymptomatic until 18-24 months of age and often do not need them removed before adulthood.

How can you tell the difference between TASS and endophthalmitis?

What are the suspected causes of TASS?

TASS has numerous causes, and most cases are attributed to 1) contaminants on surgical instruments, resulting from improper or insufficient cleaning; 2) products introduced into the eye during surgery, such as irrigating solutions or ophthalmic medications; or 3) other substances that enter the eye during or after …

What is the difference between endophthalmitis and Panophthalmitis?

How can you tell the difference between Panophthalmitis and endophthalmitis?


  1. Endophthalmitis is inflammation of the internal structures of the eye, namely the uvea, retina, vitreous, and sometimes the lens.
  2. Panophthalmitis is purulent inflammation of all parts of the eye, and often arises when endophthalmitis extends into the cornea and sclera.

What is the difference between enucleation and exenteration?

Enucleation is removal of the intact eye, leaving the muscles and other tissue attachments within the orbit. Exenteration is removal of the eye and the contents of the orbit; variations to the basic technique, saving or sacrificing different tissues within or around the orbit, depend on the clinical circumstances.