What is bone mineralization?

What is bone mineralization?

Bone mineralization, the process by which the organic bone matrix becomes filled with calcium phosphate nanocrystals, occurs in a specific, highly ordered process. The process is mediated by osteoblasts and confined to the organic osteoid matrix produced by osteoblasts.

What is the pathophysiology of the bone?

The bone formation and resorption are performed by bone cells. The osteoblasts are present on the outer bone surface and in the bone cavities. They are responsible for the bone new-formation. They secrete the collagen monomers and proteoglycans of the ground substance.

What is meant by resorption of bone?

Bone resorption is the destruction of bone tissues that promotes bone loss, that is, a decrease in bone mass and bone density.

How does mineralisation occur?

Mineralisation is the phrase used to describe the process whereby organic forms of nitrogen (N) in the soil are converted to available forms of N. This process is driven by microorganisms present in the soil decomposing organic matter for their energy supply.

What is calcification or mineralization?

Calcification, by definition, refers to the accumulation of calcium salts in a tissue and this is a commonly used term to describe the pathological processes occurring in soft tissues (Orriss 2020).

What is pathophysiology of osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is defined elsewhere in this issue as a condition of skeletal fragility characterized by reduced bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue with a consequent increase in risk of fracture. Low bone mass is thus visualized as a risk factor for fracture.

What causes resorption of bone?

Causes Of Bone Resorption External resorption is often stimulated by injuries in the mouth and teeth that cause swelling and loss of bone. Such damages may take place from prolonged use of orthodontic appliances such as braces/ tooth grinding/ tooth bleaching.

What is the difference between resorption and reabsorption?

So what exactly is the difference between these two words? The short answer is that reabsorption refers to the process of absorbing something again, while resorption refers to the process of losing substance.

What is bone deposition?

Bone deposition and bone resorption are ongoing dynamic processes, constituting bone remodeling. Some bone tumors, such as osteosarcoma (OS), stimulate focal bone deposition. OS is the most common primary bone tumor in children and young adults.

Why is mineralisation important?

Mineralization increases the bioavailability of the nutrients that were in the decomposing organic compounds, most notably, because of their quantities, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur.

What is an example of mineralization?

Geologists also view mineralization as the precipitation of minerals (inorganic elements and/or compounds) into a preexisting medium or directly onto a substrate, i.e., geological mineralization – precipitation of gypsum from water is an example.

Is bone mineralization bad?

If this process is not properly regulated, the resulting mineralization will be either insufficient or excessive. As a consequence, the quality of bone tissue can be compromised. Such pathological bone mineralization can be the main cause of many bone diseases.

What causes mineralisation?

Several diseases can result in disorders of bone mineralization, which can be defined as the process by which osteoid becomes calcified. This process depends on adequate levels of ionized calcium and phosphate in the extracellular fluid. Vitamin D influences these levels after its dihydroxylation into calcitriol.

What is physiology and pathophysiology?

Pathophysiology is the field of study that converges on pathology and physiology. Physiology is a field of study that explains the various biological mechanisms that operate within an organism. Pathology is another discipline that explores conditions associated with a disease.

What is the difference between absorption and resorption?

Absorption—The taking up of fluids or other substances by the skin, mucous surfaces, or absorbent vessels (page 21). Resorption—The removal by absorption of excreted matters (page 872).

What promotes bone resorption?

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates bone resorption by acting directly on osteoblasts/stromal cells and then indirectly to increase differentiation and function of osteoclasts.

What causes resorption?

In most cases it is due to a physical injury to the tooth, as from an impact, chemical, or burn. The trauma leads to inflammation that in turn results in resorption. Other causes include pulp necrosis, periodontal treatment, orthodontics, or poorly done, non-professional tooth whitening.

Why does reabsorption occur?

Reabsorption allows many useful solutes (primarily glucose and amino acids), salts and water that have passed through Bowman’s capsule, to return to the circulation.

What are the steps in bone deposition?

Abstract. The process of bone formation is called osteogenesis or ossification. After progenitor cells form osteoblastic lines, they proceed with three stages of development of cell differentiation, called proliferation, maturation of matrix, and mineralization.

Which cell is responsible for bone deposition?

Osteoblasts are cells responsible for the secretion and deposition of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) into the extracellular matrix during bone formation.

What is Mineralisation process?

What are the three stages of mineralization?

During the mineralization, nitrogen is converted to inorganic forms (NH4, NO2, and NO3) by three reactions: aminization, ammonification, and nitrification.

What is bone histology?

Histology of Bone. The strength, shape and stability of the human body are dependent on the musculoskeletal system. The most robust aspect of this unit is the underlying bony architecture.

What factors influence the classification of bone tissue?

The histological structure, mode of ossification, cross-sectional appearance, and degree of maturity influences the classification of bony tissue. In addition to discussing the cellular constituents of bone and the architectural arrangement of their products, this article will also address the embryology and mechanisms of ossification as well.

What is the origin of bone?

Bone is derived from three embryonic sources. The neurocranium and the viscerocranium originate from derivatives of the neural crest cells as well as paraxial mesoderm. The paraxial mesoderm also contributes to the formation of the axial skeleton, while the appendicular skeleton originates from the lateral plate mesoderm.

How is undecalcified bone histology performed?

Performing undecalcified bone histology varies from the techniques utilized in conventional paraffin embedded methods; this is because of density and lower permeability of the tissue, demanding more time-consuming fixation and processing times. The tissue is first placed in 10% phosphate-buffered formalin solution.