What is a Cholangiocyte?

What is a Cholangiocyte?

Cholangiocytes are a heterogeneous, highly dynamic population of epithelial cells that line a three-dimensional network of bile ducts known as the biliary tree. Their major physiologic function lies in modification of hepatic canalicular (i.e., primary) bile as it is transported along the biliary tree.

Are cholangiocytes parenchymal cells?

The liver lobule consists of epithelial cells, hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, and of non-parenchymal cells, such as liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), Kupffer cells and hepatic stellate cells (HSC).

What type of cells are hepatocytes?

Hepatocytes, the major parenchymal cells in the liver, play pivotal roles in metabolism, detoxification, and protein synthesis. Hepatocytes also activate innate immunity against invading microorganisms by secreting innate immunity proteins.

Are cholangiocytes in gallbladder?

Cholangiocytes are the epithelial cells of the bile duct. They are cuboidal epithelium in the small interlobular bile ducts, but become columnar and mucus secreting in larger bile ducts approaching the porta hepatis and the extrahepatic ducts….

Location Bile duct
Function Epithelium

What does Ductular mean?

a small anatomical duct.

What do Kupffer cells do?

Kupffer cells are resident liver macrophages and play a critical role in maintaining liver functions. Under physiological conditions, they are the first innate immune cells and protect the liver from bacterial infections.

What are ITO cells?

Ito cells (perisinusoidal fat-storing cells, stellate cells, lipocytes) of the liver are mesenchymal cells located in the space of Disse. They are the main place of vitamin A storage in characteristic lipid droplets.

What are hepatic progenitor cells?

Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are bipotential cells residing in normal liver. Their proliferation is observed in reactive conditions of the liver and in primary liver cancers.

What is unique about hepatocytes?

In the canalicular domain, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and other bile acid efflux transporters predominate. Hepatocytes are unique in that they may have several basolateral and apical domains in close proximity (Fig. 1 C).

What are hepatocytes made of?

In contrast to most glandular epithelial cells that contain a single Golgi organelle, hepatocytes typically contain many stacks of Golgi membranes. Golgi vesicles are particularly numerous in the vicinity of the bile canaliculi, reflecting transport of bile constituents into those channels.

What are oval cells?

Oval cells are a specific type of cells with oval shaped nucleus that appear in the injured liver when hepatocyte proliferation is inhibited by toxins or genetic changes. From: Encyclopedia of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, 2019.

What is Ductular reaction in chronic liver disease?

Ductular reaction (DR) is characterized by the proliferation of reactive bile ducts induced by liver injuries. DR is pathologically recognized as bile duct hyperplasia and is commonly observed in biliary disorders. It can also be identified in various liver disorders including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

What is Ductular proliferation?

INTRODUCTION. Ductular proliferation is often used to describe the appearance of biliary epithelial cells in the portal tracts of diseased livers. The proliferating bile ductules are heterogeneous and are histologically classifiable into typical and atypical types[1].

Where are liver Kupffer cells?

liver sinusoids
Kupffer cells, also known as stellate macrophages and Kupffer–Browicz cells, are specialized cells localized in the liver within the lumen of the liver sinusoids and are adhesive to their endothelial cells which make up the blood vessel walls.

Are Ito cells the same as stellate cells?

Stellate Cells Also known as Ito cells or fat storing cells, Ito cells are situated in the space of Disse between the sinusoidal endothelial cells and the hepatocyte cords.

What are Ito cells where are these cells located in the liver?

What are pancreatic progenitor cells?

Pancreatic progenitor cells are multipotent stem cells originating from the developing fore-gut endoderm which have the ability to differentiate into the lineage specific progenitors responsible for the developing pancreas.

What is difference between hepatocytes and hepatic cells?

Approximately 25% of hepatocytes found in an adult human contain two nuclei instead of one. Most of these nuclei contains twice the number of chromosomes than a normal cell; thus are deemed tetraploid….Figure 1.

Hepatic cell Function of the cell
Cholangiocyte Transport bile, secrete bicarbonate and water.

What is the structure of hepatocytes?

Structure. The typical hepatocyte is cubical with sides of 20-30 μm, (in comparison, a human hair has a diameter of 17 to 180 μm). The typical volume of a hepatocyte is 3.4 x 10−9 cm3. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is abundant in hepatocytes, whereas most cells in the body have only small amounts.

What are oval cells in liver?

What is a stellate cell?

Stellate cells are quiescent fibroblasts that normally reside in sinusoidal walls within the subendothelial space of Disse. Stellate cells are activated by inflammatory mediators to commence collagen synthesis. Simultaneously, there occurs activation of tissue metalloproteinases that degrade collagen.

What are Ductular reactions?

Ductular reaction refers to an increased number of ductules (the finest ramifications of the biliary tree), accompanied by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and an increase in matrix, leading to periportal fibrosis and eventually biliary cirrhosis.

What is Ductular reaction?

Abstract. Ductular reaction (DR) is characterized by the proliferation of reactive bile ducts induced by liver injuries. DR is pathologically recognized as bile duct hyperplasia and is commonly observed in biliary disorders. It can also be identified in various liver disorders including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease …

What is the main function of Kupffer cells?

What is the difference between cholangiocytes and hepatocytes?

Cholangiocytes act through bile-acid independent bile flow, which is driven by the active transport of electrolytes. In contrast, hepatocytes secrete bile through bile-acid dependent bile flow, which is coupled to canalicular secretion of bile acids via ATP-driven transporters.

What is the physiology of cholangiocytes?

Physiology of Cholangiocytes. Cholangiocytes are epithelial cells that line the intrahepatic bile ducts. The major physiologic function of cholangiocytes is ductal bile formation, that is, modification of primary (canalicular) bile secreted by hepatocytes through a series of secretory and reabsorptive processes.

Are cholangiocytes facultative liver stem cells?

Raven, A. et al. Cholangiocytes act as facultative liver stem cells during impaired hepatocyte regeneration. Nature 547, 350–354 (2017). 114. Schaub, J. R. et al. De novo formation of the biliary system by TGFbeta-mediated hepatocyte transdifferentiation. Nature 557, 247–251 (2018). 115.

What is the prevalence of cholangiocytes in the liver?

Cholangiocytes account for 3–5% of the endogenous liver cell population, lining the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct system.