# How is bioavailability calculated?

## How is bioavailability calculated?

Bioavailability is calculated by comparing plasma levels of a drug given via a particular route of administration (for example, orally) with plasma drug levels achieved by IV injection. This is where the AUC comes into play (the area under the curve calculated by plotting plasma concentrations of the drug versus time).

What is the equation for relative bioavailability?

Relative bioavailability can be calculated by comparing the plasma drug concentration-time-curves (AUC – area under the curve) after the administration of two different formulations of the same compound (e.g. capsule vs. tablet).

### What is bioavailability in Biopharmaceutics?

Bioavailability is defined as relative amount of drug from an administered dosage which enters the systemic circulation and the rate at which the drug appears in the systemic circulation.

Why is bioavailability of IV Route 100%?

When evaluating bioavailability, blood samples are collected, and the concentration of the active substance in the blood (systemic circulation) is determined. Thus, bioavailability will be 100% directly after injection, as the active substance is administered directly into the blood.

## What is the equation for absolute bioavailability?

If dosage form B is an IV administration then FB = 1 and F = FA and thus FA represents the absolute bioavailability.

How do you calculate bioavailability in Excel?

you need to calculate AUC by the trapezoidal method, the total AUC is the sum of the trapezoids (AUC0-t= (C1+C2/2)*(t2-t1) and so on). You can do this in excel. The next step is to calculate de bioavailability and for this you should use this formula: AUCoral* i.v. Dose/ AUCiv* oral Dose.

### What is relative bioavailability?

“Relative” bioavailability is the amount of drug from a formulation that reaches the systemic circulation relative to a different formulation (non-IV) such as oral solution, reference formulation, etc. Relative bioavailability is commonly used when an IV formulation does not exist or cannot be made.

How is bioequivalence calculated?

Bioequivalence is determined based on the relative bioavailability of the innovator medicine versus the generic medicine. It is measured by comparing the ratio of the pharmacokinetic variables for the innovator versus the generic medicine where equality is 1.

## Is AUC the same as bioavailability?

The most reliable measure of a drug’s bioavailability is AUC. AUC is directly proportional to the total amount of unchanged drug that reaches systemic circulation. Drug products may be considered bioequivalent in extent and rate of absorption if their plasma concentration curves are essentially superimposable.

What is the bioavailability of IV?

By definition, when a medication is administered intravenously, its bioavailability is 100%.

### What are the 2 types of bioavailability?

Types of bioavailability are as follow:

• Absolute Bioavailability: When the drug is administered through the intravenous route, the bioavailability of the drug achieved will be 100 percent.
• Relative Bioavailability: It is the bioavailability of the drug when obtained and it is compared with a reference standard.

How do you calculate the amount of drug absorbed?

The absorption rate constant Ka is a value used in pharmacokinetics to describe the rate at which a drug enters into the system. It is expressed in units of time−1. The Ka is related to the absorption half-life (t1/2a) per the following equation: Ka = ln(2) / t1/2a.

## What is the unit of bioavailability?

Bioavailability is a term used to describe the percentage (or the fraction F) of an administered dose of a xenobiotic that reaches the systemic circulation. Bioavailability is practically 100% (F=1) following an intravenous administration.

What is T R ratio in bioequivalence study?

Bioequivalence (BE) trials aim to demonstrate that the 90% confidence interval of the T/R-ratio of the pharmacokinetic metrics between two formulations (test [T] and reference [R]) of a drug is fully included in the acceptance interval [0.80, 1.25].

### What is difference between bioequivalence and bioavailability?

For a drug to be highly bioavailable it should be fast and completely absorbable. Bioequivalence is Just a comparison of the bioavailability of two identical products. For example, we compare two brands of paracetamol (Acetaminophen) for their bioavailability.

How do you calculate AUC manually?

You can divide the space into 2 parts: a triangle and a trapezium. The triangle will have area TPR*FRP/2 , the trapezium (1-FPR)*(1+TPR)/2 = 1/2 – FPR/2 + TPR/2 – TPR*FPR/2 . The total area is 1/2 – FPR/2 + TPR/2 . This is how you can get it, having just 2 points.

## How do you calculate AUC last?

This can be calculated from the AUC(0-t) by the addition of a constant (Clast/λz), where Clast is the last observed quantifiable concentration and λz is the terminal phase rate constant. AUC(0-tau): AUC to the end of the dosing period (for example for OD dosing, the dosing tau is 24hrs.)

How do you calculate bioequivalence?

For oral drugs, bioequivalence is determined by comparing the relative bioavailability of the brand name drug versus the generic drug. There must be no more than a 20% difference between the AUC and Cmax of brand name versus generic products.

### Which is an example of bioavailability?

For example, orally administered morphine has a bioavailability of about 25 percent due to significant first-pass metabolism in the liver. Therefore, the dose of morphine given orally is usually 3–5 times larger than an i.v. dose of morphine.

How do you calculate bioavailability in pharmacokinetics?

1. Equation 1: Vd = total amount of drug in the body ÷ plasma drug concentration.
2. Equation 2: F = mass of the drug delivered to the plasma ÷ total mass of the drug administered.
3. Equation 3: F = AUC for X route of administration ÷ AUC for IV administration.

## How is PK calculated?

Calculate the pKa with the formula pKa = -log(Ka). For example, pKa = -log(1.82 x 10^-4) = 3.74.

What is 90 confidence interval in bioequivalence?

A test product is said to be average bioequivalent to a reference (innovative) product if the 90% confidence interval of the ratio of means (after log-transformation) is totally within (80%, 125%).

### How is ROC and AUC calculated?

ROC AUC is the area under the ROC curve and is often used to evaluate the ordering quality of two classes of objects by an algorithm. It is clear that this value lies in the [0,1] segment. In our example, ROC AUC value = 9.5/12 ~ 0.79.

How is AUC model calculated?

AUC :Area under curve (AUC) is also known as c-statistics. Some statisticians also call it AUROC which stands for area under the receiver operating characteristics. It is calculated by adding Concordance Percent and 0.5 times of Tied Percent.

## What does AUC mean in bioavailability?

area under the curve
The area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve (AUC) reflects the actual body exposure to drug after administration of a dose of the drug and is expressed in mg*h/L. This area under the curve is dependant on the rate of elimination of the drug from the body and the dose administered.